There have been studies of the use of Electrical stimulation over the centuries. One of the earliest known uses was by the Egyptians over 2000 years ago. They discovered the electrical properties in fish and that certain fish emit an electrical impulse. They used that stimulation to treat pain and ailments such as gout.  In the 18th century Luigi Galvani of Italy experimented with passing an electrical current through the spine of a frog, resulting in the contraction of the frog’s muscles, showing that muscle contractions could be controlled through electronic stimulation. There are a great many pioneering giants down through the ages who ‘saw before their time’. Our aim is to provide articles, links and background studies which led to where we are today and new studies abound.

History of Pioneers of Electro-Stimulation Technology

Biofeedback Electro Stimulation Technology– White Paper by Stan Wolfe

Depression research using CES

Anxiety references- research-studies using CES

Neurophysiologic predictors of motor function in stroke- 2015 Spaulding

Pain research using CES


Noninvasive activation of cervical spinal networks after severe paralysis


Noninvasive current stimulation improves sight in patients with optic nerve damage, study suggests


Electrical nerve stimulation can reverse spinal cord injury nerve damage in patients


Benefits of Electrical Stimulation Therapy For People Paralyzed By Spinal Cord Injury


Electrical stimulation of deep brain structures to ease chronic pain


Researcher seeks to use electrical stimulation to give voice to stroke patients


Bid for bandages to enter the electronic age: Electrical stimulation promotes healing


Vagus nerve stimulation significantly reduces rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, study shows